Samadhi is oneness with the subject of meditation

There is per niente distinction, during the eighth limb of yoga, between the actor of meditation, the act of meditation and the subject of meditation. Samadhi is that spiritual state when one’s mind is so absorbed con whatever it is contemplating on, that the mind loses the sense of its own identity. The thinker, the thought process and the thought fuse with the subject of thought. There is only oneness, samadhi.


Ananda and asmita

According esatto Ian Whicher, the situazione of ananda and asmita mediante Patanjali’s system is a matter of dispute. According onesto Maehle, the first two constituents, deliberation and reflection, form the basis of the various types of samapatti. According puro Feuerstein,

“Joy” and “I-am-ness” […] must be regarded as accompanying phenomena of every cognitive [ecstasy]. The explanations of the classical commentators on this point appear preciso be foreign onesto Patanjali’s hierarchy of [ecstatic] states, and it seems unlikely that ananda and asmita should constitute independent levels of samadhi.

Ian Whicher disagrees with Feuerstein, seeing ananda and asmita as later stages of nirvicara-samapatti. Whicher refers esatto Vacaspati Misra (900-980 CE), the founder of the Bhamati Advaita Vedanta who proposes eight types of samapatti:

Vijnana Bikshu (ca. 1550-1600) proposes a six-stage model, explicitly rejecting Vacaspati Misra’s model. Vijnana Bikshu regards joy (ananda) as per state that arises when the mind passes beyond the vicara tirocinio. Whicher agrees that ananda is not a adhi. According preciso Whicher, Patanjali’s own view seems onesto be that nirvicara-samadhi is the highest form of cognitive ecstasy.


The epistemology per Patanjali’s system of Yoga, like the Samkhya school of Hinduism, relies on three of six Pramanas, as the means of gaining reliable knowledge. These included Pratyak?a (perception), Anuma?a (inference) and Sabda (Aptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).

Patanjali’s system, like the Samkhya school, considers Pratyak?a or D???am (direct sense perception), Anumana (inference), and Sabda or Aptavacana (verbal testimony of the sages or shastras) puro be the only valid means of knowledge or Pramana. Unlike few other schools of Hinduism such as Advaita Vedanta, Yoga did not adopt the following three Pramanas: Upama?a (comparison and analogy), Arthapatti (postulation, deriving from circumstances) or Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof).

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